KNOWLEDGE BASE

# Grain Glossary

Get an overview of financial terms and their definitions.

# I

**International Monetary Fund (IMF)**

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that promotes global monetary cooperation, financial stability, and international trade. The IMF was founded in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference and is headquartered in Washington, D.C. It is funded and owned by its member countries, which contribute financial resources to the organization and are represented by a board of directors.

**Implied Volatility**

The implied volatility of a financial instrument, such as a stock or an option, indicates its expected volatility over its lifetime. Due to its derived nature, it is implied as it cannot be observed directly. Options contracts are commonly priced using implied volatility because it determines the likelihood that the underlying asset will reach a certain price by a certain date. An asset with a high implied volatility is likely to experience price swings in the future, while one with a low implied volatility is less likely to experience price movements. Implied volatility is typically expressed as an annualized percentage.

**Interest Rate Curve**

An interest rate curve represents the relationship between interest rates and debt maturity. The curve plots the interest rates of securities with different maturities on the y-axis and the maturities of the securities on the x-axis. Several factors, such as monetary policy, inflation expectations, and market conditions, can influence the shape of the interest rate curve over time.

**Interest Rate Swap (IRS)**

Interest rate swaps are financial derivatives that allow two parties to exchange or swap cash flows based on a notional principal amount. During the inception of the swap, the parties agree on a set of fixed or floating interest rates. The swap involves one party paying a fixed rate of interest on the notional amount, while the other party pays a floating rate. Floating rates are typically based on an index, such as London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR), which is the average rate at which banks can borrow funds. By using interest rate swaps, parties can hedge against changes in interest rates, manage the risk of fluctuating interest rates, or speculate on future changes in interest rates.

**In The Money (ITM)**

In finance, an option is considered to be in the money if the current market price of the underlying asset is higher than the strike price for a call option, or lower than the strike price for a put option. For example, if a stock is trading at $60 per share, and a call option with a strike price of $50 is available, the option is in the money. Similarly, if a put option with a strike price of $70 is available, it is also in the money.

In-the-money options have intrinsic value, which is the difference between the current market price of the underlying asset and the strike price of the option.

**International Transaction**
International transactions are cross-border trade agreements or credit operations involving a foreign currency. A typical international transaction involves the exchange of goods or services, and the settlement date is the last step.

**ISO 4217**
A standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) provides information about the relationships between individual currencies and their minor units by defining alpha and numeric codes.

**Initial Margin (IM)**
The initial margin (IM) is the amount of cash or collateral that an investor must pay to open a margin account in order to purchase a security. Investors can borrow money to buy securities with this type of collateral.