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KNOWLEDGE BASE

Grain Glossary

Get an overview of financial terms and their definitions.

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Repurchase Agreement (REPO)

Repo transactions involve one party selling securities to another with the agreement to buy them back later at a higher price. Often, repos are used to raise short-term capital or finance the purchase of securities. There are two types of repos: term repos, which have a fixed maturity date, and open repos, which have no fixed maturity date and can be terminated at any time. A repos is most commonly used by banks, hedge funds, and other financial institutions as a way to raise short-term capital, and they are considered a low-risk investment because they are usually secured with high-quality securities.


Real-time gross settlement (RTGS)

Real-time gross settlement (RTGS) systems are specialist funds transfer systems that allow money or securities to be transferred from one bank to another in real time and on a gross basis to avoid settlement risk. When a payment transaction is settled "in real time," there is no waiting period. Transactions are settled as soon as they are processed. The term "gross settlement" means the transaction is settled one-to-one, without bundling or netting with any other transaction. "Settlement" refers to payments that are final and irrevocable once processed.


Reverse Repurchase Agreement (Rev REPO)

A reverse repo is a financial transaction where one party purchases securities from another party and then sells them back at a lower price at a later date. Like regular repos, reverse repos can be either term repos or open repos, depending on whether they have a fixed maturity date. Reverse repos are typically used by banks, hedge funds, and other financial institutions as a way to invest short-term excess cash or to finance the purchase of securities. 


Rho

Rho is a measure of the sensitivity of an option's price to changes in the risk-free interest rate. It is a Greek letter used in options pricing formulas to represent the amount by which the price of an option is expected to change in response to a 1% change in the risk-free interest rate. Rho is typically expressed as a percentage, and it reflects the impact that changes in the risk-free interest rate can have on the value of an option.


Risk Reversal

Risk reversals are financial transactions in which two parties exchange risk. It is generally used to hedge against or speculate on changes in the value of an underlying asset. One common type of risk reversal is an options strategy that involves the simultaneous purchase of a put option and the sale of a call option on the same underlying asset. This strategy is also known as a short straddle or a short combination. The put option gives the holder the right to sell the underlying asset at a predetermined price (the strike price), while the call option gives the holder the right to buy the underlying asset at the same strike price.


Run on the Bank

A run on the bank is a situation where a large number of depositors attempt to withdraw their money from a bank at the same time due to concerns about the bank's solvency or financial stability. This can be triggered by rumors or actual news of the bank's financial difficulties or instability.

A run on the bank can have serious consequences, as it can lead to the bank's inability to fulfill the withdrawal requests of its depositors, resulting in a liquidity crisis that can spread to other banks and the wider financial system. In some cases, governments or central banks may step in to provide support and prevent a wider financial crisis.


Profit Repatriation

The repatriation of profits means that a firm can send earnings or assets from abroad back to its home country in hard currency such as USD, EUR, and others.


Rolling Option

A rolling option is an options contract that grants a buyer the right to purchase something at a future date, as well as the choice to extend the expiration date of that right, for a fee.

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